Tooth decay is the most popular disease, or even a plague of modern civilization. The main factors are cariogenic bacteria and carbohydrates that form tooth plaque (bacterial), referred to as “biofilm” on the surface of teeth. Plaque can be defined as a soft sludge continuously formed on all surfaces of the teeth, gums and denture restorations.
It appears on the hard surfaces of the oral cavity already 2-3 hours after brushing. Composition of the biofilm depends on the diet, ontogenetic bacterial composition of saliva and the frequency of cleaning procedures. It is known that the mouth is home to a large number of different bacteria, constantly exchanging and complementary. Colonization of bacteria are partially counteracted by: the flow of saliva and gingival fluid, epithelial desquamation, chewing activity and cleaning procedures. Under these conditions, only those bacteria can survive, that have the ability to adhere to a variety of hidden surface, where mechanical cleaning is difficult. These include grooves and fissures of molars and premolars, depressions on occlusal surfaces, vestibular and lingual surfaces around the gums and the contact surfaces of all teeth.
The mechanism of decay
Many bacteria in plaque can metabolize carbohydrates into acids. Tooth decay affects nearly 90% of people in the world. This disease is characterized initially by appearance of a small, dark spot on the enamel of the tooth, which becomes larger in time. Typical areas of appearance of caries are grooves between the cusps of teeth, and the slits and contact surfaces. This is because food remains and bacteria that live in the mouth are deposited in these areas. After eating e.g. sugary foods, plaque bacteria transform carbohydrates into acids that damage tooth enamel. Little visible loss increases over time to include further layers of the tooth tissue, that is – enamel and dentin. In this way, caries approaches the pulp.
If the tooth is not cured in time, the enamel (under the influence of chewing hard foods) collapses, increasing the loss, and eventually tooth decay affects a tissue which is very important for the tooth, that is the pulp. Then, the patient may suffer from shooting pain, and most often, only then does the owner of the tooth appear in a dental office.
If a toothache, instigated by various stimuli, lasts from a few to several minutes, it indicates the possibility of treating it while maintaining the pulp alive. Conversely, if the pain is severe and persists for a longer period of time, sometimes for several days, during the treatment the pulp must be removed – because of irreversible changes. The tooth treated in this way is already dead.
Diseased teeth can cause:
- Meningitis and encephalitis,
- Optic neuritis and ophthalmia
- Otitis media
- Skin diseases
- Slow endocarditis
- Pain and arthritis
- Nephritis and genitourinary tract inflammation
- Gastric and duodenal ulcer
Any medical conditions in the oral cavity can be easily identified because the inflammatory process is signalled by pain, swelling, bleeding gums, sensitivity to chemical stimuli, temperature, etc. These symptoms are noted by the patient himself, but he may often try to wait out the state, using a variety of home treatments, hoping that the pain will pass. We need to remember that behaving in this way, we help the disease.
How to avoid pain, dramatic health risks and the fear of dentist? The answer is very simple: We should get into the habit of keeping the mouth clean and on regular basis – every few months – appear in the dentist’s office for periodic control tests. Even when we are convinced of the great condition of our teeth. Systematic monitoring allows beginning treatment early.
Conservative dentistry is a branch of dentistry dedicated to profilactics against decay and treatment of already present cavities.
Thanks to the use of materials and equipment of the highest quality in our dental office, you can be sure that the fillings used by us are highly aesthetic and virtually indistinguishable from natural teeth. We are highly concerned that the work of our team of doctors should meet the functional and aesthetic needs. When materials used while filling, imitate the natural tissues of teeth. Therefore, fillings with a light-cured material are imperceptible.
Root canal treatment is the last resort for us. Therefore, we make every effort to keep your tooth alive.